Dispositif de partenariat avec les Suds

IRN SOUTH : Impact of Black Carbon in South East Asia (SOOT-SEA)

Pays : Viet Nam, Myanmar, Thaïlande, Laos, Cambodge

Région : Asie

Année de création : 2018

Fin de soutien IRD : 2022

Objectifs scientifiques et projet de recherche

Black Carbon (BC; or soot) is the product of incomplete combustion of fossil fuels, biofuels and biomass, and is coemitted with other aerosols. BC and co-emitted aerosols make up the majority of fine particle air pollution, and is the leading environmental cause of poor health and premature death. BC also impacts climate by: (i) exerting a direct net positive radiative forcing at the top-of-the atmosphere equivalent to ~40% of the current radiative forcing due to the CO2 greenhouse effect, (ii) influencing cloud formation/properties and rainfall patterns, and (iii) reducing the albedo of the cryosphere when deposited on ice and snow, hence increasing melting rate. Owing to its impacts on health and climate, BC is receiving growing attention. Another impact of BC, much less known than its direct impacts on health and climate, is related to its introduction in the ocean. The atmospheric lifetime of BC ranges from a few days to one month, and BC eventually deposits on the surface of lands and oceans. In addition to the direct deposition on the surface of the ocean, large amounts of BC deposited on land are washed out by rainfall and transported by rivers, hence ultimately ending up in the ocean.

Axes de recherche

The estimated total flux of BC to the ocean via atmospheric deposition and fluvial transport is equivalent to the estimated emission rate. Considering that most BC ends up in the ocean, it is important to understand how this material impacts marine systems. Because BC particles are highly porous and surface-active, with a high density, they can sorb dissolved compounds, increase aggregation processes and ballast sinking particulate organic matter. Because they bring nutrients and contaminants to the surface ocean, and modify the structuring of the environment at the microscale, BC may alter phyto- and bacterio-plankton composition and activity. As a result, BC may alter the efficiency of the biological carbon pump, and lead to either a positive or a negative feedback on the atmospheric concentration of CO2. In addition, BC can sorb contaminants in seawater and either introduce them into the food chain, hence alter food security, or export them to the seafloor, hence cleanse the water column. In order to determine the actual impacts of BC, it is necessary to obtain accurate emission and deposition rates. At present, there are still large uncertainties related to the magnitude of the impact of atmospheric BC due to difficulties in obtaining accurate emission inventories, and in particular in South East Asia (SEA). For example, current climate models systematically underrate aerosol absorption by 3-fold when compared to observations, which is attributed to the underestimation of BC emissions. Since estimates of the atmospheric flux of BC to the ocean are derived from emission estimates, they may be underestimated as well. In order to determine the effects of BC on marine resources and biogeochemistry, it is also necessary to understand how BC interacts with biological/chemical/physical marine processes. Owing to its short residence time in the atmosphere, atmospheric BC is currently considered a short-lived climate/health forcer. In contrast, because BC in the ocean will last for millennia, and its impacts on carbon cycling in the ocean can have long-lasting feedbacks on climate and marine biogeochemistry, marine BC may act as a long-lived climate/ecosystem forcer. SOOT-SEA seeks to stimulate research, innovation, observation and capacity-building activities related to the impacts of BC on climate, health and ecosystem, taking into account for the first time its marine dimension, by increasing interactions between scientists from the South and the North. Overall, SOOT-SEA will represent a key contribution to the future deployment of the BC Regional Observatory (FFEM-GIZ project: Strengthening Black Carbon monitoring and regulation in South-East Asia to impact air and marine pollution, climate change, health and ecosystems).

Unités IRD impliquées

  • Département sociétés et mondialisation (SOC)
  • Département Océans, climat et ressources (OCEANS)
  • Département Dynamiques internes et de surface des continents (DISCO)

Institutions membres

: Asian Institute of Technology

Chulalongkorn University : Chulalongkorn University

CMU : Chiang Mai University

VAST : Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology

IMER : Institute of Marine Environment and Ressources

USTH : University of Science and Technology of Hanoi

RUPP : Royal University of Phnom Penh

MONRE : Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment

EQM : Environment Quality Management Co. Ltd

VNU : Vietnam National University

HCMUT : Hô-Chi-Minh-City University of Technology

CNRS : Centre national de la recherche scientifique - France

EHESP : Ecole des hautes études en santé publique

UGA : Université Grenoble Alpes

UT3 : Université Toulouse 3 Paul Sabatier

Porteurs IRN SOUTH

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Objectif(s) du développement durable ciblé(s)

ODD03 - BONNE SANTE ET BIEN-ETRE

ODD04 - EDUCATION DE QUALITE

ODD11 - VILLES ET COMMUNAUTES DURABLES

ODD13 - MESURES RELATIVES A LA LUTTE CONTRE LES CHANGEMENTS CLIMATIQUES

ODD14 - VIE AQUATIQUE

ODD17 - PARTENARIATS POUR LA REALISATION DES OBJECTIFS

Nom officiel Type de partenariat Pays
Asian Institute of Technology Institution membre Sud Thaïlande
Centre national de la recherche scientifique - France Institution membre Nord France
Chiang Mai University Institution membre Sud Thaïlande
Chulalongkorn University Institution membre Sud Thaïlande
Ecole des hautes études en santé publique Institution membre Nord France
Environment Quality Management Co. Ltd Institution membre Sud Myanmar
Hô-Chi-Minh-City University of Technology Institution membre Sud Viet Nam
Institute of Marine Environment and Ressources Institution membre Sud Viet Nam
Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment Institution membre Sud Laos
Royal University of Phnom Penh Institution membre Sud Cambodge
University of Science and Technology of Hanoi Institution membre Sud Viet Nam
Université Grenoble Alpes Institution membre Nord France
Université Toulouse 3 Paul Sabatier Institution membre Nord France
Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology Institution membre Sud Viet Nam
Vietnam National University Institution membre Sud Viet Nam
Aix-Marseille université Partenaire lié France
Institut de recherche pour le développement Partenaire lié France
Institut national de recherche pour l'agriculture, l'alimentation et l'environnement Partenaire lié France
Université du Sud Toulon-Var Partenaire lié France
Département scientifique Structure Implication
Département sociétés et mondialisation (SOC) PALOC Porteuses secondaires
Département Océans, climat et ressources (OCEANS) LEGOS Porteuses secondaires
MIO Porteuses principales
Département Dynamiques internes et de surface des continents (DISCO) LAERO Porteuses secondaires
IGE Porteuses principales